Key References

Key References


In spite of the wide acceptance of the idea of global citizenship, there is neither agreement about what it really means nor is there consensus on how to measure it. According to Bryant (2006), global citizenship calls for participatory action in alleviating local and global inequality and the capacity to affect the well-being of individuals and the long-term sustainability of the planet. Andrzejewski and Alessio (1999) define global citizenship as knowledge and skills for social and environmental justice. Dobson (2003) offers a view of global citizenship in which issues of justice, the environment, and civic obligations are key determinants. Key references on global citizenship include:

  • Andrzejewski, J. & Alessio, J. (1999, Spring). “Education for Global Citizenship and Social Responsibility.” Progressive Perspectives: 1998-99 Monograph Series. 1, 2.
  • American Council on Education. (1998). Educating for Global Competence. Washington, D.C.
  • Braskamp, L. (2008, September). “Developing Global Citizens”. Journal of College and Character, 10, 1.
  • Bryant, D. (2006). “The Everyone, Everywhere: Global Dimensions of Citizenship.” In Bo. Holland & J. Meeropol (Eds.) A More Perfect Vision: The Future of Campus Engagement. Providence, RI: Campus Compact. [www.compact.org/20th/papers]
  • Dobson, A. (2003). Citizenship and the Environment. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.
  • Dower, N. & Williams, J. (Eds.) (2002). Global Citizenship: A Critical Introduction. New York, NY: Routledge.
  • Flanagan, C., Syvertsen, A., Stout, M. (2007, May). “Civic Engagement Models: Tapping Adolescents’ Civic Engagement.” Circle Working Paper 55. The Center for Information & Research on Civic Learning and Engagement.
  • Hunter, B., White, G. and Godbey, G. (2006, Fall). “What Does it Mean to Be Globally Competent?” Journal of Studies in International Education, 10, 3: 267-285.
  • Noddings, N. (2005). Educating Citizens for Global Awareness. New York, NY: Teachers College Press.
  • Paige, M., Stallman, E. & Josić, J. (May 27, 2008). “Study Abroad for Global Engagement: A Preliminary Report on the SAGE Research Project.” NAFSA: Association of International Educators. Conference Presentation.
  • Parekh, B. (2003). “Cosmopolitanism and Global Citizenship.” Review of International Studies, 291: 3-17.


It is beyond the scope of this study to measure discipline-specific learning. Academic development is understood as a multi-dimensional construct that entails two interrelated, but not necessarily interchangeable constructs: academic self-concept and academic self-efficacy. Key references on academic development include:

  • Bandura, A. (1986). Social Foundations of Thought and Action. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.
  • Bong, M., Clark, R. (1999, June). “Comparison Between Self-Concept and Self-Efficacy in Academic Motivation Research.” Educational Psychologist. 34, 3: 139-153.
  • Choi, N. (2005, January). “Self-Efficacy and Self-Concept as Predictors of College Students’ Academic Performance.” Psychology in the Schools., 42, 2: 197-205.
  • Eachus, P. (1993). “Development of the Health Student Self-Efficacy Scale.” Perceptual and Motor Skills, 77: 670.
  • Gresham, F., Evans, S., Elliot, S. (1988). “Academic and Social Self-Efficacy Scale: Development and Initial Validation.” Journal of Psychoeducational Assessment, 6: 125-138.
  • House, J.D. (1992). “The Relationship Between Academic Self-Concept , Achievement-related Expectancies, and College Attrition.” Journal of College Student Development, 33: 5-10.
  • Reynolds, W. (1988). “Measurement of Academic Self-Concept in College Students.” Journal of Personality Assessment. 52, 2: 223-240.
  • Woodside, B., Wong, E., & Wiest, D. (1999). “The Effect of Student-Faculty Interaction on College Students’ Academic Achievement and Self-Concept.” Education. 119: 730-733.

Mark Beirn


An experienced global researcher and administrator, Mark Beirn brings a critical approach to risk management, factoring structural racism and identity-based violence into his rubric for supporting equitable global mobility.

Specialization Areas:

– Global Risk Management
– Education Abroad
– Diversity, Equity, Inclusion in International Education
– Health and Safety
– Curriculum Development


Stephen Appiah-Padi​


Stephen Appiah-Padi is an international educator with several years of teaching and administrative experience in both 4 and 2-year HEIs. An experienced global education practitioner-scholar, with a demonstrated history of success in the field.

Dr. Appiah-Padi has a Ph.D. from the University of Alberta, Edmonton, Canada in Educational Policy & Administration with a specialization in International/Intercultural Education.

At Northwestern College, he provided oversight in the administration of education abroad and international student services. In Lansing, Michigan, he first oversaw diversity and intercultural education at Lansing Community College, and later created the Center for International and Intercultural Education (CIIE) which merged intercultural engagement and international education programs of the institution, and he became its first director. Additionally, Dr. Appiah-Padi taught a course, “Diversity in the American Workplace”, to undergraduate management students of the College. In his current position, he provides leadership and vision in advancing strategic internationalization initiatives, including international partnerships and study abroad programs at Bucknell University.

Dr Appiah-Padi has created and facilitated several workshops for faculty and staff development in higher education and in business organizations. He has presented at several national and international conferences. In NAFSA, among several volunteer leadership positions, he has served as Dean of the Fundamentals of Intercultural Communication Workshop, the Leadership Development Committee member, Chair of the Africa Special Interest Group, and a Fellow of the Global Fellowship Program for mentoring emerging leaders of internationalization in African HEIs. He currently serves as a member of the NAFSA Board of Directors.

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Rosa Almoguera


Dr. Rosa Almoguera has worked as an international educator for over twenty years. She was trained as a Hispanic Philologist at the Universidad Complutense, in Madrid, and did her M.A. at the University of Pennsylvania. Her Ph.D., from Universidad Complutense included a field study and edition of written balladry “Romancero”. During many years Rosa combined teaching and her role as a senior administrator at the Fundación Ortega-Marañón in Toledo, Spain. At the Foundation, Rosa directed and, in many cases created, programs for the University of Minnesota, Notre Dame, Princeton, Ohio State, Arcadia, and the University of Chicago. She has also been a visiting professor at the University of Minnesota, University of Portland, and Interamericana de Puerto Rico.

Beginning in 2016, Rosa works as an international education consultant for both public and private European and US higher education institutions. Rosa has been successful in developing new partnerships and programs, as well as helping improve already existing ones.

Rosa is a member of Forum and NAFSA and has presented with higher education professionals on innovative academic and research programming, STEM in study abroad and Nationalism in Europe. Rosa is currently completing the final Professional Certification from the Forum on Education Abroad.